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Cross Referencing In Essays How Many Sentence

Did it even happen to you that, when you write a paper, then you decide to insert/deleate a figure, or even move your figures around, you will need to search through the entire paper to fix the figure numbers.  If so, this article could help you.  What about references?  I will show you how using "cross-reference" in MS Word could save you a lot of work.

Working with figures

First, lets insert a figure in a document.  Place cursor at where the figure is going to be inserted.  Click on "Insert" -> "Reference" -> "Catpion".

A dialog box should pop up.  Enter the name of the figure, click OK.

Now, Figure 1 is created, named "This is figure one.".

Similarly, I created Figure 2, named "This is figure two.". Then, we can insert the figure number into the text, as "Figure 1".  Place the mouse cursor to where you want to insert the figure number.  Click on "Insert" -> "Reference" -> "Cross-reference".

In the dialog box, select "Figure" as "Reference type", then select "Only label and number", pick "Figure 1 ...", click "Insert".

Now, we have Figure inserted in the text.

So, we have Figure 1 and 2 in the text. What happens if I want to insert another figure at the very beginning of the document.  I inserted another figure named, "This is the third figure." at the begining.  It is automatically inserted as figure 1.  Notice that, the original figure 1 is now figure 2.  But the number in the text is not change.

Instead of searching and replacing all the figure numbers in the text, click "Edit" -> "Select All" (or, Ctrl + A), which select the entire document, then, press "F9".  This updates all the figure number automatically.

I assume you will say, this looks good, if you never used this before. Then, what if I want to move figures around?
I then switched the positions of Figure 2 and 3.

And then, press Ctrl+A, then F9. This automatically updates my figures.


Working with references

Working with references is similar as with figures described above.  First, lets take a list of references, enable numbering by highlighting the list first, then right-click on the list, select "Bullets and Numbering".

In the dialog box, select the numbering style, then click OK.

Now, we have a proporly numbered reference list.

Then, we need to insert it into the text.  Place your cursor to where the reference is to be inserted, then click "Insert" -> "Reference" -> "Cross-reference".

In the dialog box, select "Numbered item", "Paragraph number", then the reference you want to insert, click "Insert".

This inserts the reference into the text. And same as how it works for the figures we showed above, when reference list is changed, they can be updated automatically by using Ctrl+A (or, just highlight the part of the text where the references are inserted), then press F9.


September 12, 2006

The term cross-reference can refer to either:

  • An instance within a document which refers to related information elsewhere in the same document. In both printed and online dictionaries cross-references are important because they form a network structure of relations existing between different parts of data, dictionary-internal as well as dictionary external.[1]
  • In an index, a cross reference is often denoted by See also. For example, under the term Albert Einstein in the index of a book about Nobel Laureates, there may be the cross-reference See also: Einstein, Albert.
  • In hypertext, cross-referencing is maintained to a document with either in-context (XRIC) or out-of-context (XROC) cross-referencing. These, are, similar to KWIC and KWOC.
  • In programming, "cross-referencing" means the listing of every file name and line number where a given named identifier occurs within the program's source tree.
  • In a relational database management system, a table can have an xref as prefix or suffix to indicate it is a cross-reference table that joins two or more tables together via primary key.
  • A cross reference helps strengthen a document's structure and supports the whole document.

Structure of a cross reference[edit]

In a document, especially those authored in a Content management system, a cross-reference has two major aspects:

  • A visible form that appears when the document is presented to the reader
  • A technical mechanism that resides within the system

The visible form contains text, graphics, and other indications that:

  • Enable the reader to follow the cross reference to the referenced content
  • May enable the reader to understand what is being referred to, or what to expect upon following the reference
  • May present to the reader some information from the referenced content

The technical mechanism that resides within the system:

  • Identifies what location is being referred to
  • Permits the system to present appropriate referencing text when the location containing the reference is presented to a reader
  • Permits the system to offer a control (such as a link) that a reader can use when the content is presented in electronic form to access the referenced content

How cross references contribute to usability of a document or set of documents[edit]

If the cross reference mechanism is well designed, the reader will be able to follow each cross reference to the referenced content whether the content is presented in print or electronically.

An author working in a content management system is responsible for identifying subjects of interest that cross documents, and creating appropriate systems of cross references to support readers who seek to understand those subjects.[2] For an individual cross reference, an author should ensure that location and content of the target of the cross reference are clearly identified, and the reader can easily determine how to follow the cross reference in each medium in which publication is supported.

Content strategy practitioners (known as content strategists) specialize in planning content to meet business needs, taking into account the processes for creating and maintaining the content, and the systems that support the content.

See also[edit]


  1. ^Sandro Nielsen (1999): "Mediostructures in Bilingual LSP Dictionaries." In: Lexicographica. International Annual for Lexicography 15, 90–113.
  2. ^Rockley, Ann; Cooper, Charles (2012). Managing Enterprise Content: A Unified Content Strategy (2nd ed.). New Riders. ISBN 978-0321815361.