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Worldwide, human cancer occurs with increasingly higher incidences and mortalities. The traditional diagnostic practice for this disease is mainly based on histological patterns. Recent research supports the notion that cancer is not a single malignant disorder, but rather, a group of distinct molecular diseases. In the era of precision medicine with targeted therapies, there is an imperative need to overcome the limitations of the conventional classification system, so as to accurately stratify patients to achieve maximum therapeutic efficacy. As such, many molecular diagnostic tests have been developed to identify the underlying genetic signatures and incorporate them into the conventional histopathological classifications of cancers.
The profiling of cancer has yielded a number of genetic, microRNA, proteomic, metabolic, and imaging markers for molecular classification. Newer approaches include, but are not limited to, cancer stem cell analysis and next-generation sequencing. Indeed, molecular classification has already been extensively applied to some types of cancer, such as the subtypes of luminal A and lumina B estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer, the subtypes of ALK- and EGFR-positive non-small cell lung cancer, the subtypes of WNT pathway and Sonic Hedgehog pathway medulloblastoma, etc. This Special Issue discusses the significance of molecular classification and its impact on the diagnosis of, and rational therapy for cancer.
Dr. William Chi-shing Cho
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- cancer biomarker
- cancer stem cells
- clinical trial
- copy number variation
- diagnostic imaging
- digital PCR
- fluorescence in situ hybridization
- genome-wide association studies
- genomic database
- microfluidics, nanofluidics
- molecular classification
- molecular diagnostics
- molecular tumor pathology
- next-generation sequencing
- non-coding RNAs
- PCR array
- personalized medicine
- post-translational modifications
- precision medicine
- single nucleotide polymorphism
- targeted therapy
- translational cancer research