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Scholarly Referencing Styles Bibliography

Referencing (or citing) is acknowledging the sources of information that you have used in your written work at university (for example, in an essay or a report, or in your thesis).

Citing a reference acknowledges the work of the author you have consulted and enables others to locate the item that you have cited.

Failure to provide proper acknowledgement of your use of another's work constitutes plagiarism.

To cite correctly, you need to use a referencing style: a standardised way of recording the elements of a book or journal article, or web site.

Most university departments ask you to use a specific referencing style, such as MLA or Harvard (the author-date system.) Check with your department to see if they recommend a particular style.

  • Plagiarism information for students

    A resource provided by the Writing Centre.

  • Referencing Style Guides

    Style guides for APA, Harvard, Note and Vancouver, provided by the Writing Centre.

  • EndNote

    A guide to using Endnote software, which allows you to store and manage references

  • Endnote Web

    A guide to using Endnote Web, a simplified version of Endnote (above). Not recommended for post-graduate students.

  • Quick guide to referencing

    A reference guide from the University Writing Centre: outlines the why, when, how and what of referencing, and includes links to other useful sources.

Welcome to the NYU Libraries Citation Style Guide.

When you are writing a paper or doing research on a topic, you must cite your sources. Academic or scholarly work requires a bibliography, which may also be referred to as a works cited page, a citations list, or a reference list. There are many reasons why citing your sources is important, and you must cite them in order to avoid plagiarism. There are various styles for citing sources; you will most likely find that you will need to use one style if you are writing a paper for a literature course and a different style if you are working in the sciences or social sciences.

How to use this guide:

Using the tabs near the top of this page, you should select the citation style appropriate for your field of study. In each tab, there are some basic examples of items you might be citing. For further examples or more detailed assistance, you may need to refer to a complete writing and style guide. Go to the More Style and Writing Guides tab for more information.

Citation management systems, like RefWorks or Endnote, are extremely useful for keeping track of, organizing, formatting, and sharing your reference lists. Go to the Formatting Tools tab for more information.

If you have questions about how to cite your sources or what style you should use, remember that you can ask your professor, teaching assistant, advisor, or a librarian. Good luck!

What Is Plagiarism?

Why Should You Cite Your Sources?

When Should You Cite Your Sources?