The Effectiveness of Mobile Computing Devices in Classroom Instruction
743 WordsFeb 17th, 20183 Pages
Thus, La Salle Green Hills (LSGH) pioneered the use of tablets in the classrooms at the later part of 2012 and named this endeavor as the PERsonal Learning device (PEARL) program. During its initial stage, students of the honors classes were selected as its participants. On the following year around eight to nine sections in the High School level opted to join the said program. However, during the course of the said program implementation, certain issues have been raised that needed to be addressed by the school especially in the area of student learning. Based on a study made by a group of LSGH High School teachers last February 2014 on the effectiveness of using tablets in Grade 10 English classes, it has been observed that there is no distinct difference between the non-tablet and tablet classes in terms of student performance. This may be attributed to the following: 1). there is no definite strategic plan made except for the roadmap on how the PEARL program will be implemented. 2). the infrastructure set-up was not carefully taken into consideration. 3). teachers have not been given enough training prior to its implementation. 4). the policies and guidelines drafted on the students’ use of tablets were vague or lacking in terms of giving sanctions to erring…
[ Enterprise Architecture Framework for Mobile Computing ]
There is a huge amount of interest in the development of mobile business applications, driven by recent advances in mobile technologies and standards, as well as the growing population of mobile workers. Nevertheless, many companies are not sure about the options that are emerging due to the nature of mobile computing technologies. They are also concerned about the integration of mobile technologies with existing IT infrastructure and applications. In this paper, a methodology to help companies develop business strategies and architectures for mobile computers offered. Overall mobile technical infrastructure is presented to assist companies in the evaluation and deployment of mobile applications. Discusses software standards, which can have a big impact on the technical architectures and mobile application development. Finally, the implications of the proposed methodology for mobile computing for practitioners and researchers discussed in the conclusion.
Keywords: Mobile computing; web services; mobile technical architecture; business strategies, standards.
Table of Contents
1 Mobile computing 4
2 Methodology for mobile computing applications 6
3 Develop a mobile computing technical architecture 9
3.1 Mobile clients 11
3.2 Wireless networks 11
3.3 Data synchronization 13
3.4 Mobile application servers 14
1. Content Adaptation or Transcoding Services. 14
2. Notification services. 14
4 Conclusions 15
1 Mobile computing
The twenty-first century workforce is becoming increasingly mobile. A recent IDC study predicted the number of mobile workers in the U.S. will rise from 92 million in 2001 to 105 million in 2006 while the non-mobile workforce will decline by 2 million to 53.8 million by 2006. Thus, two -thirds of U.S. workers will be mobile workers in 2006. Mobile workers in this study are defined as workers who spend more than 20 % of their time away from his desk attending meetings, traveling, or telecommuting from home.
Some players in the mobile computing market with an emphasis on content and services, such as ringtones , music in MP3 format as well as MMS consumer oriented . However, according to a study by IT research firm, 40 % of companies use wireless technology for business applications by 2003, compared with only 5 % in 1999. According to this trend, over 50 % of companies have or will have a wireless connection to corporate systems in 2005. aggressive deployment of mobile computers is partly due to recent advances in mobile computing technologies , high return on investment for effective implementation of mobile technology . Some studies show that the productivity of mobile workers can be increased by 30% when the corresponding mobile technology deployed . 
The abundance of new mobile technologies and standards, as well as enable them to benefit created great confusion among business managers and IT architects. We have developed a methodology to help organizations plan and build a mobile computing applications throughout the enterprise. The method proposed in this paper is an attempt to provide a comprehensive strategic framework for identifying business opportunities for mobile business and commerce, as well as plans and action plan for the development and deployment of mobile applications. This methodology is designed to help companies realize the potential benefits of mobile technology more easily. Section 2 of this Article stages of the life cycle methodology are presented. Section 3 discusses how to analyze the mobility of business processes. Section 4 presents a detailed analysis of the evolution of architecture of mobile computing and new mobile technologies analysis. Section 5 presents some important software standards that are important for mobile architectures and application development. This paper concludes with a discussion of how the proposed methodology can be improved and validated, as well as a call for further research to advance our understanding of the development and deployment of mobile computing in the enterprise.
2 Methodology for mobile computing applications
In mobile computing across the enterprise is the use of mobile devices, wireless networks and Internet for data access and enterprise applications. The lack of techniques to help organizations in their efforts to mobile computing, may have prevented the deployment of mobile applications across the enterprise. Based on the literature on the development of systems design methodologies, business processes [3,4], methods of planning information systems and mobile computing [11,13], has developed a methodology for building mobile computing applications throughout the enterprise. The proposed methodology is illustrated in Figure 1 is in sense IDEF0 notation. In IDEF0, the process is represented as a rectangular box and its relation to the inputs, controls, outputs and mechanisms (ICOM) can be interpreted as:
Figure 1 A Methodology for Building Enterprise-Wide Mobile Applications
" The inputs to the outputs of the process are converted according to the control group , using the mechanisms. " Boxes in Figure 1 represent the five stages of the life cycle for building mobile computing applications throughout the enterprise . The arrows are in contact with the box on the left is the entrance to the stage of the life cycle; arrows coming out of the box on the right are the outputs (eg , results) ; Management indicated by arrows in contact with the upper side of the box representing the restrictions and guidelines governing the phase behavior. The mechanisms are arrows that come in contact with the bottom of the box representing the systems , organizations, or persons engaged in the phase of life cycle.
The methodology should be considered as an offer and guidance. Businesses can plan and mobile application development through activities in the various stages of the life cycle repeatedly and simultaneously for rapid prototyping and evaluations. Five main building applications for mobile computing phases are described as follows:
1. Develop enterprise-wide mobile strategies:
The companies involved in mobile computing initiatives, and who want to take advantage of new mobile computing technologies as well as support for more mobilization work to gain a competitive advantage in the marketplace and to better serve its customers. Mobile Strategy team should consist of higher-level control (eg, CEO, CIO, CTO, managers and business line). The process of creating a mobility strategy for the whole company must be based on existing strategies and business objectives, as well as high-level understanding of trends in mobile technology and impacts.
2. Analyze the mobility of business processes.
Until recently, business communication and computing support is not limited to desktop computing means that employees stick to their desks. Mobile technologies allow organizations to restructure their business processes, so that their service representatives and sales personnel in the field can perform actions critical client site. At this stage, the team will develop an analysis of mobile maps business processes and identify promising mobile projects that can bring more revenue and lead to better customer service. Section 4 conducts activities and approaches in the analysis process mobility.
3. Develop an enterprise-wide mobile technical architecture.
Integrated mobile technical architecture will evolve in this phase of the strategies based on business phones, mobility map analysis of business processes, as well as portfolios of mobile applications developed in the previous two stages. The technical architecture will allow companies to invest wisely in mobile technology, based on the current IT infrastructure and mobile standards, so that the cost of development and deployment of mobile applications can be reduced.
4. Build mobile applications.
The most obvious limitations in creating applications for mobile devices are small screen size, the least effective methods of data entry, as well as limited local food processor. The first step in the development of mobile applications to reduce the user input requirements, providing interfaces to point and click, and deliver only the most critical content for mobile computing forward to take advantage of the special characteristics of the devices phones, such as the function key, dial phone and voice opportunities trendy cell for building mobile applications Beaulieu [2 ] was proposed.
5. Deploy mobile applications.
Training users and adequate support during the deployment phase. Change management strategy should be used in conjunction with the deployment of mobile applications for providing an effective change of behavior of the people involved in these processes mobilized. Performance indicators of mobile business processes and labor must be implemented to justify the investment in mobile computing and information to improve business processes enabled phones continuously.
The first three phases of the methodology are important to the company's efforts in mobile computing methodology. The last two phases of a particular project. In this paper, we focus on enterprise-wide aspects of mobile computing and discuss only the first three phases in detail.
3 Develop a mobile computing technical architecture
Gartner, a research firm IT, predicted that "over 50 percent of mobile applications deployed in early 2002 will be obsolete by the end of 2002 .  " Many applications become obsolete quickly due to the complexity of different mobile technologies involved . Best practices in managing these evolving technologies and competition is to define and develop a technical standard technical architecture based mobile handsets is an extension and improvement of the components of the existing infrastructure facilitate integration between mobile applications and existing IT applications. Integrated mobile architecture can also improve the efficiency of development and deployment of new mobile applications  .
We have developed a common mobile computing architecture is shown in Figure 2, based on the recommendations of vendors and researchers [ 3, 9 , 11] .
Figure 2 A Mobile Computing Technical Architecture
3.1 Mobile clients
Mobile clients consist of mobile devices, mobile operating systems ( OS) and client software for mobile applications . Mobile devices are cell phones and low-end PDAs with Internet access, and high-end PDAs and laptops that are wireless network connections. There are many mobile operating systems for handheld computers (such as a pilot study on the Palm and Microsoft Pocket PC operating system). Additional programming frameworks (eg , virtual machines ) such as J2ME and . NET Compact Framework, specifically designed to work on mobile devices, which may be necessary for the deployment of some independent applications. It is expected that all mobile devices for wireless access to the Internet, the ability to view web pages as well as a certain degree of local processing capacity.
3.2 Wireless networks
Wireless networks have been recently accelerated, including the rush to serve data over mobile networks (2.5G-3G) and wireless LAN (Wi-Fi). In the near future, applications can expect constant communication from anywhere in the world. According to IDC, 85 million laptops to be sold in 2005. Most of these are expected to contain a Wi-Fi. There are three types, which complement each other to serve different needs wireless networks.
Features Mobile Web Clients Mobile Rich Clients
Devices Smart-phone, Cellular phone, PDA PDA, Notebook
Operating System Symbian, Palm OS Pocket PC, Palm OS; Programming frameworks: J2ME and .NET Compact Framework
Online/Offline Online only Online or offline
High end offline applications may require the installation of J2ME or .NET compact Framework.
User interface Web browser interface rendering markup web pages encoded in WML, cHTML, XHTML, etc. More flexible user interface
Web browsers rendering HTML web pages
Screen size Smaller Larger
Input Stylus and virtual keyboard Keyboard and mouse
Locations of business Logic and data Reside on the server side Offline applications: Reside on the client side
Online applications: reside on the server-side
Client-side installation and configuration No Yes
Table 1 A Comparison of Mobile Web Clients and Mobile Rich Clients
1. Personal Area Networks (PANs) are proximal for linking computing and communication devices for individual users, such as PDA, laptop, mobile phone and printer. The Core technology Infrared (IrDA) and Bluetooth . Advertised as a technology that enables wireless data synchronization, peer-to-peer file and special printing without the use of cables to connect these devices . Previous efforts to implement Bluetooth adoption face barriers, including security and compatibility.
2. Wireless Local Area Networks (WLANs) may be one of the main factors for the wireless standard for mobile computing. WLAN is IEEE 802.11b, also known as Wi-Fi (Wireless Fidelity) supports data transfer rates of 12 Mbps data rate is slightly better that the data rate 10 Mbps 10-BaseT, 100 Mbps, but less than 100-BaseT Fast Ethernet for most business applications, speed is appropriate. For example, a "paradigm shift in laptops as the default platform" was completed in late 2002 to the Intel . There are more and more access points in public places, hotels, conference rooms, which are equipped with base stations to support Wi-Fi wireless connections that provide Internet access.
3. Wireless Wide Area Networks (WWANs) are provided mainly carriers of wireless networks. Several generations of technologies and commercially available standards. Cellular wireless communications first generation (1G) analog is based on technology developed for voice transmission. The technology of the second generation (2G) converts voice into digital data for transmission over the air and then back into his voice. Most systems provide from 9.6 to 14.4 Kbps services 2G circuit switched data .
2.5G refers to a technology that is added to the 2G network to provide packet data service. In practice, 2.5G GPRS stands, which was added to the GSM network. In third generation systems (3G) are designed for voice and data. As defined by the International Telecommunication Union , systems must offer 3G data service packages 144 kbps to 2 Mbps 3G WWAN availability slower than expected . Wireless gateways are required to connect to the networks of the Internet with wireless operators to support Internet applications.
3.3 Data synchronization
Data synchronization servers are necessary when mobile client devices, such as PDAs and laptops are capable of handling the data offline. Mobile devices that use the software: such as Microsoft Outlook and Lotus Notes often need to access "personal information," which includes an address book, task lists, email and calendar.
3.4 Mobile application servers
Mobile application servers provide a broad range of functions, sometimes under different product labels. Major functions in a typical mobile application server include: content adaptation, notification, and security.
1. Content Adaptation or Transcoding Services.
Various markup languages that use different mobile devices. Building content in formats that are specific to each mobile device is very expensive and impractical. There are server solutions that dynamically translate web content and applications into multiple markup languages and optimize them for delivery to mobile devices.
2. Notification services.
In an increasingly mobile environment, people want access to the information they need no matter where they are. Notification Services can provide subscription-based and data delivery mechanisms. Applications that use notification services can offer their customers and employees the information they need, when they need, so they can make timely and informed decisions . User is obliged to subscribe to the service, indicating the triggering events when the notification should be generated and sent to the user.
Protect data from unauthorized access is a major concern for any network - wired or wireless. In business mobile, anytime, anywhere access to critical data to mobile workers is necessary for them to perform effectively in the field. This trend is a serious security problem of mobile infrastructure, and wireless communication are based on public airways.
With mobile computers and wireless networks, people can conduct business anytime and without the presence of the physical connections of restricted networks or specific computing platforms. From the information provided to the employees at your fingertips, while away from their offices, employees can increase their efficiency and productivity. The methodology proposed in this paper is an attempt to identify some of the recommendations and develop a life -cycle approach to assist companies in planning and developing strategies and mobile applications across the enterprise.
The methodology can also help researchers identify areas where further research may be called. For example, in our study of the literature, we find that there is a lack of research on mobile workers. A more rigorous and extensive research on the usage patterns of mobile applications are very needy. Field studies on how to plan and implement your mobile strategy in conjunction with the measurements as a result of improving business efficiency can help further development of the proposed methodology.
References and Notes
1. Arar, Y. (2002) 'Starbucks Expands Wireless Internet Offering', PC World, 21 August, http://www.idg.net/ic_955739_5056_1-2792.html
2. Beaulieu, M. (2001) Wireless Internet Applications and Architecture: Building Professional Wireless Applications Worldwide, Addison-Wesley.
3. Bevis D. and Patterson L. (2002) 'Extending enterprise applications to mobile users', July, http://www-3.ibm.com/software/pervasive/tech/pdf/PVC_WP.pdf
4. Chen, M. (1999) 'BPR Methodologies: Methods and Tools', in J. D. Elzinga, T. R. Gulledge and C. Y. Lee (eds.), Process Engineering: Advancing the State of the Art, Kluwer Academic Publishers, Norwell, MA, pp. 187-211.
5. Extended Systems (2002) 'Moses Cone Health System: Hospital's Mobile IT Strategy Improves Patient Care, Delivers Fast ROI', http://www.extendedsystems.com/
6. Hicks, M. (2002) 'Microsoft Turns on SQL Server Notification Services', 28 August, http://www.eweek.com/article2/0,3959,490906,00.asp
7. Hild, S. G., etc. (2001) 'Application Hosting for Pervasive Computing', IBM Systems Journal, Vo. 40, No. 1, pp. 193-219.
8. Hirsh, L. (2002) 'Why Consumers Are Not Buying M-Commerce', Wireless NewsFactor, 25 February http://www.wirelessnewsfactor.com/perl/story/16484.html
9. IBM (2001) The Executive E-Business Infrastructure Guide.
10. Intel (2002) 'IT Mobility Road Map: Past, Present, and Future Plans, Intel Information Technology Worldwide', April, http://www.intel.com/eBusiness/pdf/it/ pp021802.pdf
11. Intel (2002) 'Wireless Technology for Enterprises: High Payback Opportunities', August, http://www.intel.com/pca/developernetwork/doc/horiz_clarity.pdf
12. Intel (2002) 'Mobile PCs and Wireless: Business Users Make the Productivity Connection', 2 September, http://intel.com/eBusiness/pdf/prod/mobile/p4pm/wp020 902.pdf
13. KPMG (2002), 'Leveraging Mobile Technology to Improve Communications', KPMG Consulting, http://www.bearingpoint.com/library/pdfs/MOBLFAMILY.pdf>.
14. PricewaterhouseCoopers (2001) Technology Forecast: 2001-2003.
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